The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The key elements in the system are the kidneys, a pair of fist-sized organs located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. The kidneys remove excess liquid and wastes from the blood in the form of urine. They keep a stable balance of salts and other substances in the blood, and produce a hormone that helps to form red blood cells. Narrow tubes called ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder – a sack-like organ in the lower abdomen. Urine is stored in the bladder and eventually emptied through a canal called the urethra.
While clinical studies support the effectiveness of the da Vinci® System when used in minimally invasive surgery, individual results may vary. Surgery with the da Vinci Surgical System may not be appropriate for every individual. Always ask your doctor about all treatment options, as well as their risks and benefits.